29 March 2023 – SENSIBAT partners were able to demonstrate the successful integration of Level 2 sensors in 1Ah cells. The prepared cells were electrochemically investigated, providing the project partners with two different verifications: On the one hand, the functionality of level 2 sensors in 1 Ah cells could be verified. On the other hand, the absence of interferes with the battery cell´s performance was demonstrated by comparing the introduced cells to baseline cells without sensor.
Extended cycling of lithium-ion batteries leads to capacity fading caused by various mechanisms. Unfortunately, during operation, only the cell voltage can be monitored and no proper knowledge about the actual potential of the electrodes is observable during cell cycling. The integration of Level 2 sensors allows the project partners to monitor the anode and cathode potential next to the cell voltage.
This was achieved by the integration of a lithium iron phosphate reference electrode directly printed onto the cell separator. The work followed routines developed within SENSIBAT. Cells with integrated Level 2 sensors were compared to cells without sensor, to verify the absence of interferes with the battery cell´s performance by the sensor integration.
The integration of the Level 2 sensors in 1 Ah cells has no more than a minor impact on the cell performance, negligible compared to those arising by the manual stacking process during cell production. The successful integration allows the project partners to gain additional information on the investigated cells regarding cell/electrode design, State-of-Health observations and aging processes.
The knowledge gain by the developed sensors, will help to improve future cell generations regarding manufacturing costs and safety.